Sulphur, also spelled as “sulfur” is a nonmetallic element that exists in nature and can be found in soil, plants, foods, and water, having the Periodic Table atomic symbol of “S”. Sulfur is the tenth most abundant element in the universe. Sulphur may appear as a gas, liquid, or solid. As a mineral, sulphur appears as a pale yellow, tasteless, odorless and brittle material that is non-toxic. Some proteins contain sulfur in the form of amino acids. Sulfur is one of the few elements that is found in its elemental form in nature. Typical sulfur deposits occur in sedimentary limestone/gypsum formations, in limestone/anhydrite formations associated with salt domes, or in volcanic rock.
Sulfur is solid at room temperature, but melts easily at a temperature of only 239-degree Fahrenheit (depending on crystalline form) to a transparent light yellow liquid, becoming deep orange as the temperature is increased. Sulphur becomes progressively lighter in color at lower temperatures and is almost white at the temperature of liquid air. Sulfur does not dissolve in water (insoluble) and forms stable compounds with all elements except the noble gases.
In nature sulfur can primarily be found occurring in three forms 1) elemental sulfur, 2) sulfides, and 3) sulfates. Together these three forms of sulfur constitute about 0.05 percent of the Earth’s crust. After oxygen and silicon, sulfur is the most abundant constituent of minerals. Elemental sulfur is a natural component of the environment found in soil nearly everywhere in the world. There are geological areas where elemental sulfur occurs as massive sedimentary deposits. Examples of this occur in areas near hot springs and volcanic regions. In areas of heavy deposits, sulfur is extracted from the ground using a process called the Frasch process. Because the boiling point of sulfur is low, the Frasch process involves pumping down superheated steam down into the deposits, causing the sulfur to liquefy. The liquefied or molten sulfur is then removed by pumping air down into the deposits, causing it to rise to the surface. Once on the surface, the molten sulfur once again solidifies. The Frasch process produces sulfur of a very high purity of 99%.
On the way from gaseous, liquid or solid feedstocks to petrol, heating oil or petrochemical products, the feedstocks need to be purified of sulfuric compounds. Crude oil and coal contain a variety of complex sulphur-containing organic species. These sulphur compounds are removed from the liquid fuels by treatment with hydrogen to convert the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide, which is taken off in the gas stream. The recovery of sulfur values from sour fuels for environmental reasons is the largest source of sulphur today.
There are several forms of sulfur commodities: The main forms are granular, lump, and powder forms.
Sulphur Types: Granules & Pastilles
The granular sulphur is produced as a side product from the Gas Processing in particular from the Gas Sweetening Process that removes H2S then is converted to Liquid sulphur in the Sulphur Recovery Units (SRU) and finally that liquid sulphur is processed to produce Granulated Sulphur. Granular sulfur, as the name implies, is created through the gradual buildup of successive layers of sulfur around a central core. As a result, the ultimate product size can be controlled.
Drum granulation of solid sulphur is the most common method of producing dense, spherical sulfur granules. Sulfur granulation is a size enlargement process. Small sulphur seeds (undersized granules) are repeatedly coated with a liquid sulphur spray and cooled. With repeated application of liquid sulphur, the seed increases in volume and weight. The particles are coated until they reach a diameter of 2-6 mm. As the granule is enlarged, each coating of liquid sulphur is fully and structurally bonded to the layer beneath. This creates a spherical granule which is entirely dry and completely free of voids.
In sulphur pastillation, drops of liquid sulfur are placed on a steel belt cooler in regular rows using a liquid sulphur injection machine. The liquid sulphur loses heat as it moves on the steel belt cooler and forms into uniform hemispherical shapes called pastilles. Forming sulphur pastilles is an increasingly popular method of producing solid sulfur, due to the relative ease of setup and the high quality of the final product.
Sulphur Types: Lumps
Lump sulphur (technical gas lump sulphur) is one of the most common forms of sulfur commodity. It is created when using earthmoving equipment to recover sulfur which has been allowed to solidify in sheet or vats. Obviously, the product is extremely dusty. It is produced by filling and solidification of liquid sulfur, followed by milling the obtained blocks.
As a result of lump sulfur opening, storage and transport, it can make dust, ignite spontaneously, lose weight, contaminate and become moist, which are the main drawbacks of such a form of the sulphur commodity. Technical gas Lump sulfur is excessively required for a variety of applications in numerous industries such as the chemical, agricultural, medical, food, paper and rubber industry, while production of fertilizers, matches, gunpowder and dyes.
Sulphur Types: Powder
Sulfur Powder is produced with various standard particle sizes ranging from -40 to -350 mesh and submicron. Processes for the production of micronized sulphur powder are dangerous and energy inefficient. Micronized sulphur powder is quite often produced by pulverizing sulphur lumps in mechanical milling equipment. Sulphur powder is widely used in agricultural insecticides and fungicide in the dust forms or in the form wettable sulfur in spray mixture along with other insecticides. Sulphur powder is also used in the manufacture of fertilizers, rubber vulcanization, medicines and explosives and in the manufacture of other chemicals. Sulphur powder has an ignition temperature of approximately 190 degrees Celsius and there is a potential for explosion when there is a dust cloud from handing sulfur. In addition, static from the particles can result in ignition. It should be stored in well-ventilated areas to reduce the risk of fire or explosion.
Physical and Chemical Properties
Light yellow flakes, crystals, or powder
Sulphur is generally shipped in bulk as well as in Jumbo bags, but sulphur powder usually is packed in 25-50kg bags due to its nature and being a flammable material.
Jumbo bags have a capacity of 1-1.5 MT and are the most convenient packaging for the sulfur transport, It applies to ship sulfur for long-distance or ocean transport. It should be noted that the most affordable option is shipping in bulk, if the required facilities and equipment for loading and discharge will be available at the ports.
Sulfur is one of the chemical industry’s most important raw materials. It is used principally as the derivative in many chemical and industrial processes and is particularly important in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers, the single largest end-use for sulfur.
Sulfur’s main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is the industrialized world’s number one bulk chemical, required in large quantities in lead-acid batteries for automotive use. More than 90 percent of the elemental sulfur consumed in the United States is converted to sulfuric acid.
Elemental sulfur is a commonly used pesticide on many farms in the world. It is approved for 64 use on both conventional and organic crops to help control fungus and other pests. Fertilizers are the ultimate use of about 50% of the world’s sulfur production.
Sulphur powder is used in the process of manufacturing other common items such as matches, adhesives, synthetic fibers, paper products, plastics, water treatment chemicals and storage batteries.
Sulphur Granules Transshipment
We supply the highest purity Granular Sulphur, minimum 99.95%. Beroil Energy Group has extensive experience in sourcing, transshipping and warehousing this product.
Lump Sulphur Procurement
Our group is offering Sulphur Lumps that comply with prevailing industry standards. This chemical is widely demanded for manufacturing detergents, plastic, explosives and others.
Sulphur Powder Supplying
We are working closely with the biggest powder sulfur mills, giving us an ability to supply high purity sulfur powder with a wide range of mesh size, applicable to various industries.
BEROIL ENERGY GROUP
SUPPLIER OF The Highest Purity Sulphur
Our group of companies is offering Sulphur that complies with prevailing industry standards. Our Product is reckoned in the market for purity.